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Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen war ein deutscher Offizier und Jagdflieger im Ersten Weltkrieg. Er erzielte in diesem Krieg als einzelner Pilot die höchste Zahl an Luftsiegen. Richthofen wurde weltweit zu einem der bekanntesten Piloten. Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (* 2. Mai im Breslauer Vorort Kleinburg; † Beinamen wie Roter Baron gehen auf den roten Signalanstrich seiner Flugzeuge zurück. Auf dem Comic basierte auch das international erfolgreiche Lied Snoopy vs. the Red Baron () von The Royal Guardsmen. Manfred. Red Baron (Roter Baron) bezeichnet mehrere Computer-Flugsimulatoren, die im Ersten Weltkrieg spielen. Der Name ist eine Reverenz an den deutschen. Genießen Sie den Augenblick. Erleben Sie kleine & große Genussmomente und gönnen Sie sich eine genussvolle Auszeit. Die Philosophie der Red Baron Küche. Rare photographs of WWI German fighter pilot the Red Baron in action found in shoebox at British car boot sale. The photographs of Manfred von Richthofen flying.
Red Baron – Fine Dining Restaurant. Red Baron. Genießen Sie den Augenblick. Erleben Sie kleine & große Genussmomente. Rare photographs of WWI German fighter pilot the Red Baron in action found in shoebox at British car boot sale. The photographs of Manfred von Richthofen flying. Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (* 2. Mai im Breslauer Vorort Kleinburg; † Beinamen wie Roter Baron gehen auf den roten Signalanstrich seiner Flugzeuge zurück. Auf dem Comic basierte auch das international erfolgreiche Lied Snoopy vs. the Red Baron () von The Royal Guardsmen. Manfred.
By June, he had become the commander of the first of the new larger "fighter wing" formations; these were highly mobile, combined tactical units that could move at short notice to different parts of the front as required.
Richthofen's new command, Jagdgeschwader 1 , was composed of fighter squadrons No. Richthofen was a brilliant tactician, building on Boelcke's tactics.
Unlike Boelcke, however, he led by example and force of will rather than by inspiration. He was often described as distant, unemotional, and rather humorless, though some colleagues contended otherwise.
If you are fighting a two-seater, get the observer first; until you have silenced the gun, don't bother about the pilot. Although Richthofen was now performing the duties of a lieutenant colonel a wing commander in modern Royal Air Force terms , he was never promoted past the relatively junior rank of Rittmeister , equivalent to captain in the British army.
In the German army, it was not unusual for a wartime officer to hold a lower rank than his duties implied; German officers were promoted according to a schedule and not by battlefield promotion.
It was also the custom for a son not to hold a higher rank than his father, and Richthofen's father was a reserve major.
Richthofen sustained a serious head wound on 6 July , during combat near Wervik , Belgium against a formation of F.
The injury required multiple operations to remove bone splinters from the impact area. The Red Baron returned to active service against doctor's orders on 25 July,  but went on convalescent leave from 5 September to 23 October.
There is a theory linking this injury with his eventual death. Written on the instructions of the "Press and Intelligence" propaganda section of the Luftstreitkräfte Air Force , it shows evidence of having been heavily censored and edited.
Richthofen wrote: "My father discriminates between a sportsman and a butcher. The latter shoots for fun. When I have shot down an Englishman, my hunting passion is satisfied for a quarter of an hour.
Therefore I do not succeed in shooting down two Englishmen in succession. If one of them comes down, I have the feeling of complete satisfaction.
Only much later have I overcome my instinct and have become a butcher". I believe that [the war] is not as the people at home imagine it, with a hurrah and a roar; it is very serious, very grim.
By , Richthofen had become such a legend that it was feared that his death would be a blow to the morale of the German people.
German propaganda circulated various false rumours, including that the British had raised squadrons specially to hunt Richthofen and had offered large rewards and an automatic Victoria Cross to any Allied pilot who shot him down.
Wolfram von Richthofen. On seeing his cousin being attacked, Manfred flew to his rescue and fired on May, causing him to pull away.
Brown had to dive steeply at very high speed to intervene, and then had to climb steeply to avoid hitting the ground.
It was almost certainly during this final stage in his pursuit of May that a single. Each of these men later claimed to have been the first to reach the triplane, and each reported various versions of Richthofen's last words, generally including the word "kaputt".
His Fokker Dr. The document is a one-page, handwritten form in a registry book of deaths. It misspells Richthofen's name as "Richthoven" and simply states that he had "died 21 April , from wounds sustained in combat".
Controversy and contradictory hypotheses continue to surround the identity of the person who fired the shot that actually killed Richthofen.
The RAF credited Brown with shooting down the Red Baron, but it is now generally agreed that the bullet which hit Richthofen was fired from the ground.
Brown's attack was from behind and above, and from Richthofen's left. Even more conclusively, Richthofen could not have continued his pursuit of May for as long as he did up to two minutes had this wound come from Brown's guns.
Many sources have suggested that Sergeant Cedric Popkin was the person most likely to have killed Richthofen, including a article by Geoffrey Miller, a physician and historian of military medicine, and a edition of the British Channel 4 Secret History series.
Given the nature of Richthofen's wounds, Popkin was in a position to fire the fatal shot when the pilot passed him for a second time. It stated Popkin's belief that he had fired the fatal shot as Richthofen flew straight at his position.
In this respect, Popkin was incorrect; the bullet which caused the Baron's death came from the side see above. A Discovery Channel documentary suggests that Gunner W.
Other sources have suggested that Gunner Robert Buie also of the 53rd Battery may have fired the fatal shot. There is little support for this theory.
This claim was quickly discounted and withdrawn, if only because of the time factor. Following an autopsy that he witnessed, Blake became a strong proponent of the view that an AA machine gunner had killed Richthofen.
Richthofen was a highly experienced and skilled fighter pilot—fully aware of the risk from ground fire. Further, he concurred with the rules of air fighting created by his late mentor Boelcke, who specifically advised pilots not to take unnecessary risks.
In this context, Richthofen's judgement during his last combat was clearly unsound in several respects. In , a German medical researcher, Henning Allmers, published an article in the British medical journal The Lancet , suggesting it was likely that brain damage from the head wound Richthofen suffered in July played a part in the Red Baron's death.
This was supported by a paper by researchers at the University of Texas. Richthofen's behaviour after his injury was noted as consistent with brain-injured patients, and such an injury could account for his perceived lack of judgement on his final flight: flying too low over enemy territory and suffering target fixation.
Richthofen may have been suffering from cumulative combat stress , which made him fail to observe some of his usual precautions.
One of the leading British air aces, Major Edward "Mick" Mannock , was killed by ground fire on 26 July while crossing the lines at low level, an action he had always cautioned his younger pilots against.
One of the most popular of the French air aces, Georges Guynemer , went missing on 11 September , probably while attacking a two-seater without realizing several Fokkers were escorting it.
This was considerably faster than normal and he could easily have strayed over enemy lines without realizing it. At the time of Richthofen's death, the front was in a highly fluid state, following the initial success of the German offensive of March—April This was part of Germany's last opportunity to win the war.
In the face of Allied air superiority, the German air service was having difficulty acquiring vital reconnaissance information, and could do little to prevent Allied squadrons from completing effective reconnaissance and close support of their armies.
In common with most Allied air officers, Major Blake, who was responsible for Richthofen's body, regarded the Red Baron with great respect, and he organised a full military funeral , to be conducted by the personnel of No.
The body was buried in the cemetery at the village of Bertangles , near Amiens , on 22 April Six of No. Allied squadrons stationed nearby presented memorial wreaths, one of which was inscribed with the words, "To Our Gallant and Worthy Foe".
A speculation that his opponents organised a flypast at his funeral, giving rise to the missing man formation ,  is most unlikely and totally unsupported by any contemporary evidence.
In the early s the French authorities created a military cemetery at Fricourt , in which a large number of German war dead, including Richthofen, were reinterred.
The family's intention was for it to be buried in the Schweidnitz cemetery next to the graves of his father and his brother Lothar von Richthofen , who had been killed in a post-war air crash in Richthofen's body received a state funeral.
Later the Third Reich held a further grandiose memorial ceremony at the site of the grave, erecting a massive new tombstone engraved with the single word: Richthofen.
In the body was moved to a Richthofen family grave plot at the Südfriedhof in Wiesbaden. Richthofen family grave at the Südfriedhof in Wiesbaden.
For decades after World War I, some authors questioned whether Richthofen had achieved 80 victories, insisting that his record was exaggerated for propaganda purposes.
Some claimed that he took credit for aircraft downed by his squadron or wing. In fact, Richthofen's victories are unusually well documented.
A study conducted by British historian Norman Franks with two colleagues, published in Under the Guns of the Red Baron in , reached the same conclusion about the high degree of accuracy of Richthofen's claimed victories.
There were also unconfirmed victories that would put his actual total as high as or more. Richthofen's early victories and the establishment of his reputation coincided with a period of German air superiority , but he achieved many of his successes against a numerically superior enemy, who flew fighter aircraft that were, on the whole, better than his own.
The engine of Richthofen's Dr. I was donated to the Imperial War Museum in London, where it is still on display.
The museum also holds the Baron's machine guns. The control column joystick of Richthofen's aircraft can be seen at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.
At various times, several different German military aviation Geschwader literally "squadrons"; equivalent to Commonwealth air force "groups", French escadrons or USAF "wings" have been named after the Baron:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the WWI flying ace. For other people with the same name, see Manfred von Richthofen disambiguation.
For other uses, see Red Baron disambiguation. South Cemetery, Wiesbaden. Jasta 11 Jagdgeschwader 1. Lothar von Richthofen brother Wolfram von Richthofen cousin.
At first we flew straight ahead, then the pilot turned to the right, then left. I had lost all sense of direction over our own aerodrome! I didn't care a bit where I was, and when the pilot thought it was time to go down, I was disappointed.
Already I was counting down the hours to the time we could start again. Play media. Richthofen's former grave at Fricourt, later Sebastian Paustian, section 4, row 7, grave Main article: List of victories of Manfred von Richthofen.
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Cunnell's observer Lt. Bill successfully flew the aircraft back to base. It was apparently recovered, but it has not been preserved for examination by modern historians.
It was apparently a normal ball round, as fired by all British rifle- calibre arms, and thus would not be any help in determining the controversy of who fired it.
Von Richthofen. Firing party presenting arms as the coffin passes into the cemetery, borne on the shoulders of six pilots of No.
Bertangles, France 22nd April Marshall, M. Recent [ when? He successfully completed the training and served for nearly five months as an observer before retraining as a pilot.
Retrieved 16 July The Red Baron Archives. Retrieved 4 June Der rote Kampfflieger. Deutscher Verlag Ullstein , Retrieved: 10 August Retrieved 12 July The War Times Journal.
Retrieved: 27 May XXXIX, no. Explore Competing Theories. Retrieved: 13 June Retrieved: 8 December Published online by anzacs.
Richthofen endured numerous close calls during his flight career, but he suffered his first serious war wound on July 6, , when he sustained a fractured skull after being grazed by a bullet during a dogfight with British aircraft.
Despite returning to duty with his Flying Circus just a few weeks later, he never fully recovered from the injury and complained of frequent headaches.
Some historians have since speculated that he may have also been suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. As Richthofen swooped low in pursuit of an enemy fighter, he came under attack from Australian machine gunners on the ground and a plane piloted by Canadian ace Arthur Roy Brown.
During the exchange of fire, Richthofen was struck in the torso by a bullet and died after crash-landing in a field. Brown got official credit for the victory, but debate continues over whether he or the Australian infantrymen fired the fatal shot.
The year-old had only prowled the skies for a little over two years, but his 80 confirmed aerial victories proved to be the most of any pilot on either side of World War I.
His mysterious death and his legend as the fearsome Red Baron ensured that he lingered in the popular consciousness after the conflict ended, and he has since been depicted in countless books, films, songs, comic strips and television programs.
Richthofen: Beyond the Legend of the Red Baron. By Peter Kilduff. Aviation History Magazine. Edited by Spencer C. How Did the Red Baron Die?
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The Red Scare was hysteria over the perceived threat posed by Communists in the U. The Red Cross is an international humanitarian network founded in in Switzerland, with chapters worldwide that provide assistance to victims of disasters, armed conflict and health crises.
During a one-and-a-half year period His murder catapulted into a war across Europe that lasted until Wilhelm II , the German kaiser emperor and king of Prussia from to , was one of the most recognizable public figures of World War I He gained a reputation as a swaggering militarist through his speeches and ill-advised newspaper interviews.
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After discussing the search with his brother, Boelcke invited Richthofen and one other pilot to join his new group called "Jagdstaffel 2" "hunting squadron," and often abbreviated Jasta in Lagnicourt, France.
On Sept. Richthofen battled with an English plane he described as a "big, dark-colored barge," and eventually shot down the plane. The enemy airplane landed in German territory and Richthofen, extremely excited about his first kill, landed his airplane next to the wreck.
The observer, Lieutenant T. Rees, was already dead and the pilot, L. Morris, died on the way to the hospital. It was Richthofen's first credited victory.
It had become customary to present engraved beer mugs to pilots after their first kill. This gave Richthofen an idea.
To celebrate each of his victories, he would order himself a two-inch-high silver trophy from a jeweler in Berlin. Later, Richthofen decided to make every 10th victory cup twice as large as the others.
As with many pilots, to remember his kills, Richthofen became an avid souvenir collector. After shooting down an enemy aircraft, Richthofen would land near it or drive to find the wreckage after the battle and take something from the plane.
His souvenirs included a machine gun, bits of the propeller, even an engine. But most often, Richthofen removed the fabric serial numbers from the aircraft, carefully packed them up, and sent them home.
In the beginning, each new kill held a thrill. Later in the war, however, Richthofen's number of kills had a sobering effect on him.
In addition, when he went to order his 61st silver trophy, the jeweler in Berlin informed him that because of the scarcity of metal, he would have to make it out of ersatz substitute metal.
Richthofen decided to end his trophy collecting. His last trophy was for his 60th victory. Though it was only a touch, Boelcke's plane was damaged.
While his plane was rushing toward the ground, Boelcke tried to keep control. Then one of his wings snapped off. Boelcke was killed on impact.
Boelcke had been Germany's hero and his loss saddened them: a new hero was required. Richthofen wasn't there yet, but he continued to make kills, making his seventh and eighth kills in early November.
Unfortunately, the criteria had recently changed, and instead of nine downed enemy aircraft, a fighter pilot would receive the honor after 16 victories.
Richthofen's continued kills were drawing attention but he was still among several who had comparable kill records. To distinguish himself, he decided to paint his plane bright red.
Ever since Boelcke had painted the nose of his plane red, the color had been associated with his squadron. However, no one had yet been so ostentatious as to paint their entire plane such a bright color.
Richthofen understated the color's effect on his enemies. To many English and French pilots, the bright red plane seemed to make a good target. It was rumored that the British had put a price on the head of the red plane's pilot.
Yet when the plane and pilot continued to shoot down airplanes and continued itself to stay in the air, the bright red plane caused respect and fear.
After achieving 16 victories, Richthofen was awarded the coveted Blue Max on Jan. Now he was not only to fly and fight but to train others to do so.
April was "Bloody April. The Germans had the advantage in both location and aircraft; the British had the disadvantage and lost four times as many men and aircraft— planes compared to Germany's Richthofen himself shot down 21 enemy aircraft bringing his total up to He had finally broken Boelcke's record 40 victories , making Richthofen the new ace of aces.
Richthofen was now a hero. Postcards were printed with his image and stories of his prowess abounded. To protect the German hero, Richthofen was ordered a few weeks of rest.
He talked to many of the top generals, spoke to youth groups, and socialized with others. He enjoyed a privileged upbringing and spent his youth hunting and playing sports before being enrolled in military school at age In , after eight years as a cadet, Richthofen was commissioned an officer in the 1st Uhlan cavalry regiment of the Prussian army.
He received the Iron Cross for his courage under fire, but he later grew restless after his unit was consigned to supply duty in the trenches.
The request was granted, and by June the headstrong young officer was serving as a backseat observer in a reconnaissance plane.
After honing his skills flying combat missions over France and Russia, he met the famed German flying ace Oswald Boelcke, who enlisted him in a new fighter squadron called Jasta 2.
In January , Richthofen was placed in command of his own fighter squadron known as Jasta 11, which featured several talented pilots including his younger brother, Lothar von Richthofen.
Around that same time, he had his Albatros D. III fighter plane painted blood red. He shot down nearly two dozen Allied planes during the month of April alone, increasing his tally to 52 overall and cementing his reputation as the most fearsome flier in the skies over Europe.
He also became a beloved propaganda symbol in Germany, where he was lavished with military decorations and featured in numerous news articles and postcards.
Preferring to avoid unnecessary risks, he typically fought in formation and relied on the aid of his wingmen to ambush his enemies by diving at them from above.
To mark his growing kill count, he commissioned a German jeweler to make a collection of small silver cups bearing the date of each of his aerial victories.
In June , Richthofen was promoted to leader of his own four-squadron fighter wing. Later that summer, it was outfitted with the Fokker Dr.
Richthofen endured numerous close calls during his flight career, but he suffered his first serious war wound on July 6, , when he sustained a fractured skull after being grazed by a bullet during a dogfight with British aircraft.
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