A Of Hearts Scarves & Foulards
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Speak Multiplayer. Congratulations, you won! What is Shooting the moon? Suggest rematch Play another hand. We are using cookies! Show me personalized ads.
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And tell us what you think on our Facebook page. Happy Star Wars Day! May the 4th be with you! Hearts Rules These are the rules I use for Hearts.
The objective of Hearts is to get as few points as possible. Each heart gives one penalty point. There is also one special card, the Queen of spades, which gives 13 penalty points.
When the game starts you select 3 cards to pass to one of your opponents. Typically you want to pass your three worst cards to get rid of them.
Which opponent you pass to varies, you start by passing to the opponent on your left, then in the next game you pass to the opponent on your right, third game you pass across the table and in the fourth game there is no card passing.
Each turn starts with one player playing a single card, also called leading. The suit of that card determines the suit of the trick. The other players then play one card each.
If they have a card in the same suit as the first card then they must play that. If they don't then they can play one of their other cards.
Once four cards have been played, the player who played the highest ranking card in the original suit takes the trick, i.
Any penalty cards in the trick hearts or queen of spades are added to the players penalty score. So you want to avoid taking any tricks that have hearts or the queen of spades.
The player who has the two of clubs at the start of the game leads in the first hand, and he MUST lead with the two of clubs.
You cannot lead a trick with hearts, until hearts has been broken played on another suit. So if it is your turn to lead and no heart has been played yet then you may not select a heart as the card to play first.
In some variations of the game you can't play the queen of spades until hearts has been broken as well, but in this version you can always play the queen of spades and she doesn't break hearts.
In the very first round you may never play a heart or the queen of spades, not even if you don't have any card in the suit of the lead card.
Once all cards have been played the penalty points are counted and the player with the fewest points wins that hand.
When one or more players reach points or more then the entire game is finished, and the player with the least points win. If points are over and there are two or more equal with the least points then play continues until there's only one winner.
Shooting the Moon! Generally it's bad to get penalty cards, but there is one extra twist! The game first appeared at the end of the nineteenth century and is now popular in various forms in many countries.
This page describes the American version first: the same game is played in Australia under the name Rickety Kate. Some remarks on other variations will be found at the end.
This page is partly based on information collected by John Hay in preparation for his projected book. Many thanks to John for permission to use it here.
Hearts is most commonly played by 4 people. There are no formal partnerships, though there are times when players will find it in their interest to help each other.
A standard 52 card deck is used, with the cards in each suit ranking as usual from ace high down to two low. There is no trump suit. Each heart is worth one penalty point and the queen of spades is worth 13 penalty points.
The other cards have no value. The object is to avoid scoring points. The game is ended by someone reaching or going over points, and the winner is the player with the lowest score at this point.
Deal and play are clockwise. All the cards are dealt out one at a time, so that everyone has On the first hand, after the deal, each player passes any three cards face-down to the player to their left.
When passing cards, you must first select the cards to be passed and place them face-down, ready to be picked up by the receiving player; only then may you pick up the cards passed to you, look at them and add them to your hand.
On the second hand each player passes three cards to the player to their right, in the same way. On the third hand each player passes three cards to the player sitting opposite.
On the fourth hand no cards are passed at all. The cycle then repeats until the end of the game. The person who holds the 2 of clubs must lead it to the first trick.
The other players, in clockwise order, must play a card of the suit which was led if possible. If they do not have a card of that suit, they may play any card.
The person who played the highest card of the suit led wins the trick and leads to the next trick. It is illegal to lead a heart until after a heart has been played to a previous trick, unless your hand contains nothing but hearts.
Discarding a heart, thus allowing hearts to be led in future, is called breaking hearts. In general, discarding a penalty card on a trick is called painting the trick.
A player whose hand consists entirely of hearts may lead any heart, thereby breaking hearts, even if hearts have not previously been broken.
Players are permitted to lead spades to any trick after the first. In fact it is a normal tactic to lead lower spades to try to drive out the queen.
This is sometimes known as smoking out the queen. However, long-term survival rates of patients were initially very low.
Louis Washkansky , the first recipient of a donated heart, died 18 days after the operation while other patients did not survive for more than a few weeks.
As of March , more than 55, heart transplantations have been performed worldwide. By the middle of the 20th century, heart disease had surpassed infectious disease as the leading cause of death in the United States, and it is currently the leading cause of deaths worldwide.
Since , the ongoing Framingham Heart Study has shed light on the effects of various influences on the heart, including diet, exercise, and common medications such as aspirin.
As one of the vital organs, the heart was long identified as the center of the entire body, the seat of life, or emotion, or reason, will, intellect, purpose or the mind.
In the Hebrew Bible , the word for heart, lev , is used in these meanings, as the seat of emotion, the mind, and referring to the anatomical organ.
It is also connected in function and symbolism to the stomach. An important part of the concept of the soul in Ancient Egyptian religion was thought to be the heart, or ib.
The ib or metaphysical heart was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the child's mother's heart, taken at conception. This is evidenced by Egyptian expressions which incorporate the word ib , such as Awi-ib for "happy" literally, "long of heart" , Xak-ib for "estranged" literally, "truncated of heart".
It was conceived as surviving death in the nether world, where it gave evidence for, or against, its possessor. It was thought that the heart was examined by Anubis and a variety of deities during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony.
If the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat , which symbolized the ideal standard of behavior. If the scales balanced, it meant the heart's possessor had lived a just life and could enter the afterlife; if the heart was heavier, it would be devoured by the monster Ammit.
In Sanskrit, it may mean both the anatomical object and "mind" or "soul", representing the seat of emotion. Hrd may be a cognate of the word for heart in Greek, Latin, and English.
Many classical philosophers and scientists, including Aristotle , considered the heart the seat of thought, reason , or emotion, often disregarding the brain as contributing to those functions.
The heart also played a role in the Aztec system of belief. The most common form of human sacrifice practiced by the Aztecs was heart-extraction.
The Aztec believed that the heart tona was both the seat of the individual and a fragment of the Sun's heat istli.
To this day, the Nahua consider the Sun to be a heart-soul tona-tiuh : "round, hot, pulsating". In Catholicism , there has been a long tradition of veneration of the heart, stemming from worship of the wounds of Jesus Christ which gained prominence from the mid sixteenth century.
The expression of a broken heart is a cross-cultural reference to grief for a lost one or to unfulfilled romantic love. The notion of " Cupid 's arrows" is ancient, due to Ovid , but while Ovid describes Cupid as wounding his victims with his arrows, it is not made explicit that it is the heart that is wounded.
The familiar iconography of Cupid shooting little heart symbols is a Renaissance theme that became tied to Valentine's day. Animal hearts are widely consumed as food.
As they are almost entirely muscle, they are high in protein. They are often included in dishes with other offal , for example in the pan-Ottoman kokoretsi.
In Egyptian cuisine , they can be used, finely chopped, as part of stuffing for chicken. The hearts of beef, pork, and mutton can generally be interchanged in recipes.
As heart is a hard-working muscle, it makes for "firm and rather dry" meat,  so is generally slow-cooked.
Another way of dealing with toughness is to julienne the meat, as in Chinese stir-fried heart. Beef heart may be grilled or braised.
An Australian recipe for "mock goose" is actually braised stuffed beef heart. Pig heart is stewed, poached, braised,  or made into sausage. The Balinese oret is a sort of blood sausage made with pig heart and blood.
The SA node is found in all amniotes but not in more primitive vertebrates. In these animals, the muscles of the heart are relatively continuous, and the sinus venosus coordinates the beat, which passes in a wave through the remaining chambers.
Indeed, since the sinus venosus is incorporated into the right atrium in amniotes, it is likely homologous with the SA node. In teleosts, with their vestigial sinus venosus, the main centre of coordination is, instead, in the atrium.
The rate of heartbeat varies enormously between different species, ranging from around 20 beats per minute in codfish to around in hummingbirds  and up to bpm in the ruby-throated hummingbird.
Adult amphibians and most reptiles have a double circulatory system , meaning a circulatory system divided into arterial and venous parts.
However, the heart itself is not completely separated into two sides. Instead, it is separated into three chambers—two atria and one ventricle.
Blood returning from both the systemic circulation and the lungs is returned, and blood is pumped simultaneously into the systemic circulation and the lungs.
The double system allows blood to circulate to and from the lungs which deliver oxygenated blood directly to the heart. In reptiles, the heart is usually situated around the middle of the thorax, and in snakes, usually between the junction of the upper first and second third.
There is a heart with three chambers: two atria and one ventricle. The form and function of these hearts are different than mammalian hearts due to the fact that snakes have an elongated body, and thus are affected by different environmental factors.
In particular, the snake's heart relative to the position in their body has been influenced greatly by gravity.
Therefore, snakes that are larger in size tend to have a higher blood pressure due to gravitational change. This results in the heart being located in different regions of the body that is relative to the snake's body length.
In most reptilian species, there appears to be little, if any, mixing between the bloodstreams, so the aorta receives, essentially, only oxygenated blood.
In the heart of lungfish , the septum extends part-way into the ventricle. This allows for some degree of separation between the de-oxygenated bloodstream destined for the lungs and the oxygenated stream that is delivered to the rest of the body.
The absence of such a division in living amphibian species may be partly due to the amount of respiration that occurs through the skin; thus, the blood returned to the heart through the venae cavae is already partially oxygenated.
As a result, there may be less need for a finer division between the two bloodstreams than in lungfish or other tetrapods.
Nonetheless, in at least some species of amphibian, the spongy nature of the ventricle does seem to maintain more of a separation between the bloodstreams.
Also, the original valves of the conus arteriosus have been replaced by a spiral valve that divides it into two parallel parts, thereby helping to keep the two bloodstreams separate.
Archosaurs crocodilians and birds and mammals show complete separation of the heart into two pumps for a total of four heart chambers ; it is thought that the four-chambered heart of archosaurs evolved independently from that of mammals.
In crocodilians, there is a small opening, the foramen of Panizza , at the base of the arterial trunks and there is some degree of mixing between the blood in each side of the heart, during a dive underwater;   thus, only in birds and mammals are the two streams of blood—those to the pulmonary and systemic circulations—permanently kept entirely separate by a physical barrier.
Fish have what is often described as a two-chambered heart,  consisting of one atrium to receive blood and one ventricle to pump it. The atrium and ventricle are sometimes considered "true chambers", while the others are considered "accessory chambers".
Primitive fish have a four-chambered heart, but the chambers are arranged sequentially so that this primitive heart is quite unlike the four-chambered hearts of mammals and birds.
The first chamber is the sinus venosus , which collects deoxygenated blood from the body through the hepatic and cardinal veins. From here, blood flows into the atrium and then to the powerful muscular ventricle where the main pumping action will take place.
The fourth and final chamber is the conus arteriosus , which contains several valves and sends blood to the ventral aorta.
The ventral aorta delivers blood to the gills where it is oxygenated and flows, through the dorsal aorta , into the rest of the body.
In tetrapods , the ventral aorta has divided in two; one half forms the ascending aorta , while the other forms the pulmonary artery.
In the adult fish, the four chambers are not arranged in a straight row but instead form an S-shape, with the latter two chambers lying above the former two.
This relatively simple pattern is found in cartilaginous fish and in the ray-finned fish. In teleosts , the conus arteriosus is very small and can more accurately be described as part of the aorta rather than of the heart proper.
The conus arteriosus is not present in any amniotes , presumably having been absorbed into the ventricles over the course of evolution.
Similarly, while the sinus venosus is present as a vestigial structure in some reptiles and birds, it is otherwise absorbed into the right atrium and is no longer distinguishable.
Arthropods and most mollusks have an open circulatory system. In this system, deoxygenated blood collects around the heart in cavities sinuses.
This blood slowly permeates the heart through many small one-way channels. The heart then pumps the blood into the hemocoel , a cavity between the organs.
The heart in arthropods is typically a muscular tube that runs the length of the body, under the back and from the base of the head.
Instead of blood the circulatory fluid is haemolymph which carries the most commonly used respiratory pigment , copper-based haemocyanin as the oxygen transporter.
Haemoglobin is only used by a few arthropods. In some other invertebrates such as earthworms , the circulatory system is not used to transport oxygen and so is much reduced, having no veins or arteries and consisting of two connected tubes.
Oxygen travels by diffusion and there are five small muscular vessels that connect these vessels that contract at the front of the animals that can be thought of as "hearts".
Squids and other cephalopods have two "gill hearts" also known as branchial hearts , and one "systemic heart". The branchial hearts have two atria and one ventricle each, and pump to the gills , whereas the systemic heart pumps to the body.
OpenStax CNX. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the internal organ. For other uses, see Heart disambiguation.
For the comics character, see Cardiac comics. Muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system in most animals. Healthy resting heart sounds.
Auscultation of a healthy 15 year old's heart beating with no abnormalities. Play media. Main article: Heart valves. With the atria and major vessels removed, all four valves are clearly visible.
The heart, showing valves, arteries and veins. The white arrows show the normal direction of blood flow.
Further information: Cardiac muscle. Main article: Coronary circulation. Main articles: Heart development and Human embryogenesis.
Main article: Cardiac physiology. Main articles: Cardiac cycle , Systole , and Diastole. Main article: Cardiac output.
Main articles: Electrical conduction system of the heart and Heart rate. Main article: Heart rate. Auscultation of student's racing heart after exercise.
Recorded heart sounds of a year-old girl immediately after running, and the following recovery of heart rate. The stethoscope is used for auscultation of the heart, and is one of the most iconic symbols for medicine.
A number of diseases can be detected primarily by listening for heart murmurs. Atherosclerosis is a condition affecting the circulatory system.
If the coronary arteries are affected, angina pectoris may result or at worse a heart attack. Main article: Coronary artery disease.
Main article: heart failure. Main article: Cardiomyopathy. Main article: Valvular heart disease. Main article: Heart arrhythmia.
An irregular heartbeat. Recording of heart sounds from a year-old girl with a cardiac arrhythmia. Main article: Congenital heart defect.
Main articles: Cardiac examination and Heart sounds. Normal heart sounds. Normal heart sounds as heard with a stethoscope.
Main article: Electrocardiography. Main article: Cardiac imaging. Main articles: Coronary artery disease , Coronary artery bypass surgery , and Coronary stent.
Main article: Artificial heart valve. Main articles: Heart arrhythmia , Radiofrequency ablation , and Artificial cardiac pacemaker.
Main article: Heart failure. Common heart symbol. The seal script glyph for "heart" Middle Chinese sim. See also: Circulatory system.
Blood flow through the fish heart: sinus venosus, atrium, ventricle, and outflow tract. The coronary circulation.
The pressure difference between the blood in the atria and the ventricles does this. Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary.
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