Austria Sissi Von der Krönung bis zum tragischen Tod
Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie, Herzogin in Bayern war eine Prinzessin aus der herzoglichen Nebenlinie Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen des Hauses Wittelsbach, durch ihre Heirat mit ihrem Cousin Franz Joseph I. ab Kaiserin von Österreich und. Die Geschwister nannten sie „Sisi“; seit den Ernst-Marischka-Filmen ist sie auch als „Sissi“ bekannt. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Leben. Kindheit und Jugend. - Erkunde midiseyds Pinnwand „Empress Elisabeth of Austria (Sisi or Sissi)“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Kaiserin sisi, Kaiser von österreich. Austria is the country of Sisi's emperor, her crown and her social obligations. It is the land in which its female monarch, the “child of Wittelsbach,” will go down in. Sisi photo taken in Venice (, Oscar Kramer, Vienna) Die 25jährige Sissi I[hre] M[ajestät] Kaiserin Elisabeth von Oesterreich. Original-Portrait in.
Berlin-Woman bei Sisi, Kaiserin von Österreich im Schloss Britz - Berlin WoMan. Sissi. Kaiserin Elisabeth von Österreich - Elisabeth, Empress of Austria - L'Impératrice Elisabeth d'Autriche | Hamann, Brigitte | ISBN: Damenmodesalon Sisi Vienna Sisi Vienna Ladies Fashion Salon Annagasse 11, Wien 1, Austria Zeitlose Eleganz, timeless elegance. Viennese, up to date.
I am afraid that my mind escapes through the hair and onto the fingers of my hairdresser. Hence my headache afterwards.
The Empress sat at a table which was moved to the middle of the room and covered with a white cloth. She was shrouded in a white, laced peignoir , her hair, unfastened and reaching to the floor, enfolded her entire body.
Elisabeth used cosmetics and perfume sparingly, as she wished to showcase her natural beauty. On the other hand, to preserve her beauty, she tested countless beauty products prepared either in the court pharmacy or by a lady-in-waiting in her own apartments.
Her night and bedtime rituals were just as demanding. Elisabeth slept without a pillow on a metal bedstead, which she believed was better for retaining and maintaining her upright posture; either raw veal or crushed strawberries lined her nightly leather facial mask.
After age thirty-two, she decided she did not want the public image of the eternal beauty challenged.
Therefore, she did not sit for any more portraits, and would not allow any photographs. Franz Joseph was passionately in love with his wife, but she did not reciprocate his feelings fully and felt increasingly stifled by the rigidness of court life.
He was an unimaginative and sober man, a political reactionary who was still guided by his mother and her adherence to the strict Spanish Court Ceremonial regarding both his public and domestic life, whereas Elisabeth inhabited a different world altogether.
Restless to the point of hyperactivity , naturally introverted , and emotionally distant from her husband, she fled him as well as her duties of life at court, avoiding them both as much as she could.
He indulged her wanderings, but constantly and unsuccessfully tried to tempt her into a more domestic life with him.
Elisabeth slept very little and spent hours reading and writing at night, and even took up smoking, a shocking habit for women which made her the further subject of already avid gossip.
She had a special interest in history, philosophy, and literature, and developed a profound reverence for the German lyric poet and radical political thinker, Heinrich Heine , whose letters she collected.
She tried to make a name for herself by writing Heine-inspired poetry. Referring to herself as Titania , Shakespeare 's Fairy Queen, Elisabeth expressed her intimate thoughts and desires in a large number of romantic poems, which served as a type of secret diary.
Her wanderlust is defined by her own work:. Elisabeth was an emotionally complex woman, and perhaps due to the melancholy and eccentricity that was considered a given characteristic of her Wittelsbach lineage the best-known member of the family being her favorite cousin, the eccentric Ludwig II of Bavaria ,  she was interested in the treatment of the mentally ill.
In , when the Emperor asked her what she would like as a gift for her Saint's Day , she listed a young tiger and a medallion, but: " On 21 August , Elisabeth finally gave birth to an heir, Rudolf — The gun salute announcing the welcome news to Vienna also signaled an increase in her influence at court.
This, combined with her sympathy toward Hungary, made Elisabeth an ideal mediator between the Magyars and the emperor. Her interest in politics had developed as she matured; she was liberal-minded, and placed herself decisively on the Hungarian side in the increasing conflict of nationalities within the empire.
He set forth his views clearly and plainly. I quite understood them and arrived at the conclusion that if you would trust him — and trust him entirely — we might still be saved, not only Hungary, but the monarchy, too I can assure you that you are not dealing with a man desirous of playing a part at any price or striving for a position; on the contrary, he is risking his present position, which is a fine one.
But approaching shipwreck, he, too, is prepared to do all in his power to save it; what he possesses — his understanding and influence in the country — he will lay at your feet.
For the last time I beg you in Rudolf's name not to lose this, at the last moment If you say 'No,' if at the last moment you are no longer willing to listen to disinterested counsels.
Your misfortunes are not on my conscience. When Elisabeth was still blocked from controlling her son's upbringing and education, she openly rebelled.
Due to her nervous attacks, fasting cures, severe exercise regime, and frequent fits of coughing, the state of her health had become so alarming that in October she was reported to suffer not only from "green-sickness" anemia , but also from physical exhaustion.
Skoda , a lung specialist, who advised a stay on Madeira. Elisabeth seized on the excuse and left her husband and children, to spend the winter in seclusion.
Six months later, a mere four days after her return to Vienna, she again experienced coughing fits and fever. She ate hardly anything and slept badly, and Dr.
Skoda observed a recurrence of her lung disease. A fresh rest cure was advised, this time on Corfu , where she improved almost immediately.
If her illnesses were psychosomatic, abating when she was removed from her husband and her duties, her eating habits were causing physical problems as well.
In she had not seen Vienna for a year when her family physician, Dr. Fischer of Munich, examined her and observed serious anemia and signs of "dropsy" edema.
Her feet were sometimes so swollen that she could walk only laboriously, and with the support of others.
Elisabeth recovered quickly at the spa, but instead of returning home to assuage the gossip about her absence she spent more time with her own family in Bavaria.
In August , after a two-year absence, she returned shortly before her husband's birthday, but immediately suffered from a violent migraine and vomited four times en route, which might support a theory that some of her complaints were stress-related and psychosomatic.
Rudolf was now four years old, and Franz Joseph hoped for another son to safeguard the succession.
Fischer claimed that the health of the empress would not permit another pregnancy, and she would regularly have to go to Kissingen for a cure.
Elisabeth fell into her old pattern of escaping boredom and dull court protocol through frequent walking and riding, using her health as an excuse to avoid both official obligations and sexual intimacy.
Preserving her youthful appearance was also an important influence in her avoidance of pregnancies:. She was now more assertive in her defiance of her husband and mother-in-law than before, openly opposing them on the subject of the military education of Rudolf, who, like his mother, was extremely sensitive and not suited to the life at court.
After having used every excuse to avoid pregnancy, Elisabeth later decided that she wanted a fourth child. Her decision was at once a deliberate personal choice and a political negotiation: by returning to the marriage, she ensured that Hungary, with which she felt an intense emotional alliance, would gain an equal footing with Austria.
The issue was avoided when she gave birth to a daughter, Marie Valerie — Dubbed the "Hungarian child", she was born in Buda-Pest ten months after her parents' coronation and baptised there in April.
She poured all her repressed maternal feelings on her youngest daughter to the point of nearly smothering her. Sophie's influence over Elisabeth's children and the court faded, and she died in After having achieved this victory, Elisabeth did not stay to enjoy it, but instead embarked on a life of travel, and saw little of her children.
After her son's death, she commissioned the building of a palace on the Island of Corfu which she named the Achilleion , after Homer 's hero Achilles in The Iliad.
Newspapers published articles on her passion for riding sports , diet and exercise regimens, and fashion sense. Newspapers also reported on a series of reputed lovers.
To prevent him from becoming lonely during her long absences, Elisabeth encouraged her husband Franz Joseph 's close relationship with actress Katharina Schratt.
On her journeys, Elisabeth sought to avoid all public attention and crowds of people. She was mostly travelling incognito, using pseudonyms like 'Countess of Hohenembs'.
Elisabeth also refused to meet European monarchs when she did not feel like it. On her high-speed walking tours, which lasted several hours, she was mostly accompanied by her Greek language tutors or her ladies-in-waiting.
In Elisabeth's life was shattered by the death of her only son Rudolf , who was found dead together with his young lover Baroness Mary Vetsera , in what was suspected to be a murder-suicide on Rudolf's part.
The scandal was known as the Mayerling Incident after the location of Rudolf's hunting lodge in Lower Austria , where they were found.
Elisabeth never recovered from the tragedy, sinking further into melancholy. Within a few years, she had lost her father, Max Joseph in , her only son, Rudolf , her sister Duchess Sophie in Bavaria , Helene and her mother, Ludovika After Rudolf's death she was thought to have dressed only in black for the rest of her life, although a light blue and cream dress discovered by The Hofburg's Sisi Museum dates to this time.
Marie Valerie declared, " The Mayerling scandal increased public interest in Elisabeth, and she continued to be an icon and a sensation in her own right wherever she went.
She wore long black dresses that could be buttoned up at the bottom, and carried a white parasol made of leather in addition to a concealing fan to hide her face from the curious.
Elisabeth spent little time in Vienna with her husband. Their correspondence increased during their last years, however, and their relationship became a warm friendship.
On her imperial steamer, Miramar , Empress Elisabeth travelled through the Mediterranean. Her favourite places were Cape Martin on the French Riviera , and also Sanremo on the Ligurian Riviera, where tourism had started only in the second half of the nineteenth century; Lake Geneva in Switzerland ; Bad Ischl in Austria , where the imperial couple would spend the summer; and Corfu.
Emperor Franz Joseph I was hoping that his wife would finally settle down in her palace Achilleion on Corfu, but Sisi soon lost interest in the fairytale property.
The endless travels became a means of escape for Elisabeth from her life and her misery. In , despite warnings of possible assassination attempts, the year-old Elisabeth traveled incognito to Geneva , Switzerland.
Since the empress despised processions , she insisted that they walk without the other members of her entourage. They were walking along the promenade when the year-old Italian anarchist Luigi Lucheni approached them, attempting to peer underneath the empress's parasol.
Failing to find him, the assassin selected Elisabeth when a Geneva newspaper revealed that the elegant woman traveling under the pseudonym of "Countess of Hohenembs" was the Empress Elisabeth of Austria.
I am an anarchist by conviction I came to Geneva to kill a sovereign, with object of giving an example to those who suffer and those who do nothing to improve their social position; it did not matter to me who the sovereign was whom I should kill It was not a woman I struck, but an Empress; it was a crown that I had in view.
After Lucheni struck her, the empress collapsed. The empress then lost consciousness and collapsed next to her. The boat's captain, Captain Roux, was ignorant of Elisabeth's identity and since it was very hot on deck, advised the countess to disembark and take her companion back to her hotel.
Meanwhile, the boat was already sailing out of the harbor. Three men carried Elisabeth to the top deck and laid her on a bench.
She then asked, "What has happened? Alarmed that Elisabeth had not recovered consciousness, she informed the captain of her identity, and the boat turned back to Geneva.
Elisabeth was carried back to the Hotel Beau-Rivage by six sailors on a stretcher improvised from a sail, cushions and two oars. When they then removed her from the stretcher to the bed she was clearly dead; Frau Mayer believed the two audible breaths she heard the Empress take as she was brought into the room were her last.
Two doctors, Dr. Golay and Dr. Mayer arrived, along with a priest, who was too late to grant her absolution. Mayer incised the artery of her left arm to ascertain death, and found no blood.
When Franz Joseph received the telegram informing him of Elisabeth's death, his first fear was that she had committed suicide. It was only when a later message arrived, detailing the assassination, that he was relieved of that notion.
The telegram asked permission to perform an autopsy, and the answer was that whatever procedures were prescribed by Swiss Law should be adhered to.
The autopsy was performed the next day by Golay, who discovered that the weapon, which had not yet been found, had penetrated 3. Because of the sharpness and thinness of the file the wound was very narrow and, due to pressure from Elisabeth's extremely tight corseting, the hemorrhage of blood into the pericardial sac around the heart was slowed to mere drops.
Until this sac filled, the beating of her heart was not impeded, which is why Elisabeth had been able to walk from the site of the assault and up the boat's boarding ramp.
Had the weapon not been removed, she would have lived a while longer, as it would have acted like a plug to stop the bleeding.
Golay photographed the wound, but turned the photograph over to the Swiss Procurator-General, who had it destroyed, on the orders of Franz Joseph, along with the autopsy instruments.
As Geneva shuttered itself in mourning, Elisabeth's body was placed in a triple coffin: two inner ones of lead, the third exterior one in bronze, reposing on lion claws.
On Tuesday, before the coffins were sealed, Franz Joseph's official representatives arrived to identify the body. The coffin was fitted with two glass panels, covered with doors, which could be slid back to allow her face to be seen.
On Wednesday morning, Elisabeth's body was carried back to Vienna aboard a funeral train. After the attack, Lucheni fled down the Rue des Alpes, where he threw the file into the entrance to No.
He was caught by two cabdrivers and a sailor, then secured by a gendarme. The weapon was found the next day by the concierge during his morning cleaning; he thought it belonged to a laborer who had moved the day before and did not notify the police of his discovery until the following day.
There was no blood on the file and the tip was broken off, which occurred when Lucheni threw it away. The file was so dull in appearance it was speculated that it had been deliberately selected because it would be less noticeable than a shiny knife, which would have given Lucheni away as he approached.
Although Lucheni boasted that he acted alone, because many political refugees found a haven in Switzerland, the possibility that he was part of a plot and that the life of the emperor was also in danger, was considered.
Once it was discovered that an Italian was responsible for Elisabeth's murder, unrest swept Vienna and reprisals were threatened against Italians.
The intensity of shock, mourning, and outrage far exceeded that which occurred at the news of Rudolf's death. An outcry also immediately erupted over the lack of protection for the empress.
The Swiss police were well aware of her presence, and telegrams to the appropriate authorities advising them to take all precautions had been dispatched.
Police Chief Virieux of the Canton of Vaud had organized Elisabeth's protection, but she had detected his officers outside the hotel the day before the assassination and protested that the surveillance was disagreeable, so Virieux had no choice but to withdraw them.
It is also possible that if Elisabeth had not dismissed her other attendants that day, an entourage larger than one lady-in-waiting could have discouraged Lucheni, who had been following the Empress for several days, awaiting an opportunity.
Lucheni was brought before the Geneva Court in October. Since Elisabeth was famous for preferring the common man to courtiers, known for her charitable works, and considered such a blameless target, Lucheni's sanity was questioned initially.
Franz Joseph remarked to Prince Liechtenstein, who was the couple's devoted equerry, "That a man could be found to attack such a woman, whose whole life was spent in doing good and who never injured any person, is to me incomprehensible".
Lucheni was declared to be sane, but was tried as a common murderer, not a political criminal. Incarcerated for life, and denied the opportunity to make a political statement by his action, he attempted to kill himself with the sharpened key from a tin of sardines on 20 February Ten years later, he hanged himself with his belt in his cell on the evening of 16 October , after a guard confiscated and destroyed his uncompleted memoirs.
Upon her death, Franz Joseph founded the Order of Elizabeth in memory of her. This town is between Montreux and Chateau Chillon; the inscription mentions her many visits to the area.
Near the location of her assassination at Quai du Mont-Blanc on the shore of Lake Geneva, there is a statue in memoriam , created by Philip Jackson and dedicated in on the th anniversary of the assassination.
A large number of chapels were named in her honour, connecting her to Saint Elisabeth. Empress Elisabeth and the Empress Elisabeth Railway West railway named after her were recently selected as a main motif for a high value collector coin, the Empress Elisabeth Western Railway commemorative coin.
In , Gerald Blanchard stole the Koechert Diamond Pearl known as the Sisi Star, a pointed star of diamonds fanning out around one enormous pearl from an exhibit commemorating the th anniversary of her assassination at the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna.
It was one of approximately 27 jewel-encrusted pieces designed and made by court jeweler Jakob Heinrich Köchert for her to wear in her hair,  which appears in a portrait of her by Franz Xaver Winterhalter.
Some stars were given to ladies of the court. One set of 27 diamond stars was kept in the Imperial family; they are seen in a photograph that shows the dowry of Rudolf's daughter, Archduchess Elisabeth , known as "Erzsi", on the occasion of her wedding to Prince Otto of Windisch-Graetz in As late as , bouquets tied with the red, white and green ribbon of Hungary are left at her sarcophagus in the Capuchin Church, Vienna.
In the comic operetta Sissi premiered in Vienna. It was first staged in With libretto by Michael Kunze and music by Sylvester Levay , this is probably the darkest portrayal of the Empress' life.
It portrayed Elisabeth bringing a physical manifestation of death with her to the imperial court, thus destroying the Habsburg dynasty.
The leading role in the premiere was played by Dutch musical singer Pia Douwes. Elisabeth went on to become the most successful German-language musical of all time and has enjoyed numerous productions around the world.
In his ballet, Mayerling Kenneth MacMillan portrayed Elisabeth in a pas de deux with her son Prince Rudolf, the principal character in the ballet.
The film Kaiserin Elisabeth von Österreich was one of the first films to focus entirely on Elisabeth. It was co-written by Elisabeth's niece, Marie Larisch who played her younger self at the age of 62 , and starred Carla Nelsen as the title character.
The film later achieved notoriety when a group of con-artists started selling stills from the murder scene as actual photographs of the crime.
Adolf Trotz directed the German film Elisabeth of Austria. It starred opera diva Grace Moore and Franchot Tone. In the German-speaking world, Elisabeth's name is often associated with a trilogy of romantic films about her life directed by Ernst Marischka which starred a teenage Romy Schneider and made her famous worldwide:.
In early dramatizations, Elisabeth appears as peripheral to her husband and son, and so is always shown as a mature character.
Schneider's characterization of Elisabeth as a young woman is the first time the "young" empress is seen on screen. The trilogy was the first to explicitly depict the romantic myth of Sissi, and ends abruptly with her determination to live a private life.
Any further exploration of the topic would have been at odds with the accepted image of the loving wife, devoted mother, and benevolent empress.
The three films, newly restored, are shown every Christmas on Austrian , German, Dutch, and French television. In , the films were released as The Sissi Collection with English subtitles.
Schneider came to loathe the role, claiming, "Sissi sticks to me like porridge Haferbrei. A portrait of Schneider in this film was the only one, taken from her roles, which is displayed in her home.
In , German comedian and director Michael Herbig released a computer-animated parody film based on Elisabeth under the title Lissi und der wilde Kaiser lit.
It is based on his Sissi parody sketches featured in his television show Bullyparade. In December , to coincide with the presentation of the Pre-Fall 'Metier d'arts' collection by luxury fashion house Chanel , shown in the Schloss Leopoldskron palace, creative director Karl Lagerfeld directed a short film featuring Cara Delevingne as Empress Elisabeth accompanied by Pharrell Williams.
During a dream sequence, the duo sing a song written by Williams entitled CC the World , playing on the iconic interlocking logo of the fashion house, the initials of its founder Coco Chanel , as well as the Empress's nickname 'Sisi'.
Lagerfeld recreated the iconic gown worn by Elisabeth in the portrait by Winterhalter , whilst Pharrell takes on attire similar to Franz Joseph.
Elisabeth was portrayed in episode 4 of the British television series Fall of Eagles. Diane Keen played the young Elisabeth and Rachel Gurney portrayed the empress at the time of Rudolf's death.
The role of the actress portraying the empress was played by Claire Bloom. The season five finale of the Austrian detective television series Kommissar Rex revolves around a deluded woman affected by myth of the empress.
The episode, appropriately, is entitled, "Sisi. A heavily fictionalized version of Elisabeth's younger years is portrayed in a animated children's series, Princess Sissi.
Her son and his lover were played by Max von Thun and Vittoria Puccini. I did not hit a woman, but an empress;I had the Crown in mind. The Empress fell to the ground because of the attacker, yet she did not realise she had been stabbed.
Sztaray asked for a doctor, but since there was none aboard, a nurse who was a passenger on the ship intervened.
Sissi was taken aboard and laid on a bench. Sztaray opened her corset so as to make her breathe easily, yet Sissi lost her conscience again, after she came back for a few moments.
Alarmed, Sztaray told the captain who the woman really was and he decided to turn the ship back to the port.
Sissi was taken back to the hotel, but after a short while, she died. The doctors arrived too late;they pronounced her death at His first thought was that perhaps Sissi had committed suicide, but only after a more detailed telegram, did he understand that she had been assassinated.
The Emperor agreed to an autopsy which was carried out the next day in Geneva. Her body was laid in an elaborated bronze and lead coffin and was sent back to Vienna by train.
Whereas Lucheni is concerned, he was caught in the same day. He declared he acted alone, yet the authorities doubted it, since Switzerland became the place of refuge for many political dissidents from across Europe.
Thus, it was entirely possible that the Italian was part of a bigger plot to assassinate the Emperor. It survives even today and it is easily noticeable for everyone who visits Vienna.
The Swiss police was informed of her presence in town and the authorities were advised to take all measures of precaution. The police did that, yet Sissi identified the officers stationed outside her hotel and protested that the protection measures were inconvenient.
Thus, Virieux, the chief of Police, decided to call back his officers.